OECD Observer
Home
Menu
entrepreneurs, oecd, jobs
Missing entrepreneurs

Becoming an entrepreneur has become increasingly popular since the economic meltdown of 2008, not least in Europe.

green skills, oecd, environment
Renewable workers

How will workers’ current skills match new requirements for labour in a green economy? So far, few countries have put in place real plans to address this question, yet there is risk of a significant mismatch between skills and jobs. Would you know who to call if your geothermal system crashes? Should construction workers learn new skills for retrofitting buildings?

fossil fuels, climate change
Fossil folly

If the world is to make a dent on climate change, breaking the arm-lock of fossil fuels is inevitable. After all, limiting the rise in global temperatures to no more than 2°C by the end of the 21st century demands curbing greenhouse-gas emissions between 40% and 70% by 2050 compared with 2010 levels, which means replacing fossil fuels–coal, oil and gas–with low-carbon energy sources and developing technologies to capture and store CO2.

water, agriculture, sustainable, oecd
Groundwater is not so well

Freshwater is essential for life, yet makes up only a tiny fraction of all water on earth. In many areas, especially arid and dry regions, underground aquifers are the only source. Even in less arid regions, groundwater provides an essential resource: in fact, some 2.6 billion people worldwide rely on groundwater resources. Farming is one major reason: over 60% of irrigated agriculture in the US uses groundwater, and in Spain more than 70% of irrigation comes from below ground reserves.    

figs,International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables
Not worth a fig?

What have “bursa siyahi” and “sarilop” got in common? They are both varieties of figs. If you enjoy fresh figs in the summer or puddings in the winter, you may be interested to know that there were more than 300 fresh fig varieties growing on earth. The biggest producers are Turkey and Egypt.

martin wolf, crisis, financial crisis
What we've learned–and have still to learn–from the financial crisis*

Financial crises do more than impose huge costs: they have bigger and more insidious effects. We face big challenges in maintaining the supply of global public goods as the world integrates. But these challenges will not be managed successfully if we do not first overcome the legacy of the crisis. Moreover, all this must be done at a time of transition in global power and responsibility from a world dominated by Western powers to one in which new powers have arisen.

New publications: Focus on water

All publications available at www.oecd.org/bookshop and www.OECD-iLibrary.org

Economics for all

What if economics were within everyone’s grasp? Although you may feel that discussing Greece’s debt sustainability or Europe’s ageing problem is beyond your capabilities, Cambridge scholar Ha-Joon Chang strives to prove that you actually can.

Tackling dementia with big data

Dementia is an umbrella term coined to embrace all the chronic brain disorders that progressively lead to brain damage and the deterioration of memory, functional capacity and social relations. Alzheimer’s disease, which is fatal, is the most common form of dementia, representing about 60-80% of cases, according to a 2009 study carried out by the non-governmental organisation Alzheimer Europe.

Bacteria to the rescue

Did you know that life on earth would not be possible without micro-organisms? What is currently overlooked by the public and which could play a substantial role in the future are the different applications that could be made of micro-organisms, especially in the agricultural and energy fields. 

New publications Q4 2014

All publications available at www.oecd.org/bookshop and www.OECD-iLibrary.org

Small businesses flourish, but not their revenue

Since 2009 the French government launched a new “auto-entrepreneurs’’ status to help small, often one-person, businesses below a certain earnings threshold to bypass many formalities of registration, in an effort to stimulate entrepreneurial activity and jobs. By mid-2014, the number of auto-entrepreneurs reached nearly 1 million, according to a French business creation agency, APCE. However, according to the national statistics office, INSEE, most of these businesses have made little if any money at all. The crisis has hardly helped, but is there a recipe for success?

Current bestsellers from the OECD iLibrary Q4 2014

All publications available at www.oecd.org/bookshop and www.OECD-iLibrary.org.

Making city ports competitive

With 90% of external trade volumes transported by ship, port-cities stand as symbols of globalisation. Indeed, this has been so since ancient times: French economic historian Fernand Braudel has stressed the historical link between ports, urban development and the birth of the capitalist market economy. 

New publications Q3 2014

All publications available at www.oecd.org/bookshop and www.OECD-iLibrary.org

Current bestsellers Q3 2014

All publications available at www.oecd.org/bookshop and www.oecd-iLibrary.org

Mapping the history of well-being

Overall, well-being has improved over the past two centuries, but not always in the ways or for the reasons we might have thought. The Industrial Revolution sometimes meant workers were worse off and worse fed than before, for example.

Calculate this country’s GDP

How much of a country can you count? The newly updated Understanding National Accounts from the OECD answers this question and gives a summary of how to calculate the accounts as well as the principles and data sources behind them.

Bitcoin: More than a bit part?

The world’s first ATM cash machine opened in Vancouver in October 2013, offering Bitcoin conversion to and from Canadian dollars. As the global use of Bitcoin continues to increase, governments around the world have both greeted and shunned the anonymous digital crypto-currency. 

Myanmar invests in a new future

After decades of economic isolation, Myanmar has boldly re-entered the global market with a wide range of policy reforms intended to court foreign trade and investment. Reforms range from improvements in infrastructure, to food security and agricultural growth, to monetary and financial sector transformations. Rich in natural resources and a young labour force, the country of over 60 million people once called the “rice bowl’’ of Asia stands to gain much from opening its economy to the world.

Industrial policy’s new look

Industrial policy is now back–unless, as economist Joseph Stiglitz says, it never really left. The third edition of Perspectives on Global Development from the OECD Development Centre demystifies industrial policies. Cambridge Professor Ha Joon Chang calls it a “landmark publication because it looks for ways to make industrial policy work better, rather than having an ideological debate on whether it exists and whether it can ever succeed.”

Africa: New OECD books

All publications available at www.oecd.org/bookshop and www.OECD-iLibrary.org

Economic outlook: Achieving a resilient recovery

The recovery from the Great Recession has been slow and arduous, and has at times threatened to derail altogether.

Getting the forecast wrong

When the worst crisis in over 50 years struck OECD countries in 2008, people rightly asked why they had not been warned. After all, the information world is awash with economists, global traders and other experts watching the markets, and international organisations such as the OECD and the IMF are tasked with what is known as economic surveillance. 

Growing green agriculture

While green growth has been paid a great deal of lip service by policymakers, business leaders and other stakeholders, few concrete strategies have been put in place. Perhaps surprisingly, even in agriculture, most OECD countries still do not have solid plans in place for pursuing green growth in this sector. 

Caring for cancer

Countries are not doing as well as they could in the battle against cancer, according to Cancer Care: Assuring Quality to Improve Survival. Cancer remains one of the leading health care challenges in all OECD countries, where more than 5 million new cases are diagnosed every year. 

How are you, really?

The shortfalls of GDP that were already apparent before the crisis but made starker during it have led to a panoply of new initiatives to find metrics that can measure wellbeing rather than just economic growth. But while GDP has stood accused of overlooking the environment and human well-being, it has one advantage which policymakers and analysts appreciate: the methods are objective and clear. Whether measuring output or expenditure in an economy, GDP produces a single number that is easy to adjust and compare.

E-governance in Egypt

The Arab Spring and the rise of new social and democratic movements throughout large parts of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) may not have changed the world quite as much as millions had hoped, but at least they gave a new impetus to the use of information and communications technology and the potential of “e-government” to foster participation and engagement, increase transparency and restore public trust. 

Governing through crises

Major events, like the Great East Japan earthquake or indeed the euro crisis, can have important ripple effects that spread well beyond the areas immediately concerned. More recently, the budget crisis that resulted in the shutdown of large parts of the US government and public services has raised the spectre of a default, the first in the country’s history.

Stormy waters

Climate change is, to a large extent, water change. Water is the predominant channel through which the impact of climate change will be felt. More torrential rains, floods and droughts can be expected in many parts of the world. Not only that–climate change is reshaping the future for freshwater on the planet.